Normally stem cells word highlights the embryonic stem cells but that is not the same when it is matter of therapeutic application. In therapeutic application as off now, most commonly and safely used stem cells all over the world are the multipotent stem cells – Adult Stem Cells.
Multipotent stem cells are the cells which are unspeciallised cells like other stem cells. Unlike embryonic or pluripotent stem cells, multipotent stem cells can differentiate in to specific lineage only and have limited self renew capacity.
Normally multipotent stem cells are obtained from peripheral blood, bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbellical cord blood, wharton’s jelly (retrieve from tissue of umbilical cord). Peripheral blood, Bone marrow, cord blood has haematopoetic stem cells which are also consider as CD 34 positive cells apart from blood cells, these can give rise to endothelial progenitor cells. While as adipose tissue and Wharton’s jelly are the main source of mesenchymal cells, which further differentiate into muscle and bone cells like chondrocyte, osteoblast etc.
The properties which give popularity to mutipotent stem cells in therapeutic applications are origin of the cells, limited self renewal capacity and safety. Unlike embryonic stem cells multipotent stem cells have no ethical issue in terms of origin. The chances of formation of teratoma, which is most feared factor of stem cell therapy is very less with multipotent cells due to limited self renew capacity. Not only that, multipotent stem cells normally differentiate into a narrow set of cell types, directing them to a desired lineage is easier and safer than other types of stem cells. When these cells are used for Autologus purpose (for patient’s own purpose) there is least chances of immune rejection and also prevent bacterial, viral or other contamination from donor, which occurs in case of allogenic transplant These are the reasons making Adult Autologus Stem cell Therapy most popular all over the world these days. If GMP and GTP guideline is strictly followed than Allogenic transplant also can give good result.
Trials are undertaken with adult stem cells therapy for various conditions like cardiomyopathy, pulmonary hypertension, spinal cord injury, diabetes, myocardial infarction, avascular necrosis, parkinsonism, muscular distrophy etc. which are difficult to treat with conventional medical therapy. The scientists are very much optimistic for the outcome of adult stem cell treatment.